I n the nineteenth century, much of America was not settled. So there were few cities. Not many people lived in the countryside. So there were many beautiful places for artists to paint landscapes.
One group of landscape artists was called the Hudson River School. The Hudson River flows through New York. These artists painted the land in this area. Much of it was forest. But there were also farms, fields, and many mountains. Thomas Cole was the first Hudson River School artist. Frederic Edwin Church and Asher Durand were two others. The Hudson River School artists were Romantics. So they idealized the landscapes they painted. They painted the scenes the way they wanted the land to look, not the way that it actually looked.
Around the same time, there was another school of artists. They were called Naturalists, or Realists. They painted nature as it appeared. William Bliss Baker was one of these artists. He also painted in the Hudson River area. But his paintings look very different from the Hudson River School artists' paintings. Baker's works are realistic. His painting Fallen Monarchs is one of the most beautiful of the Naturalist paintings.